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  • 7.1 quake rocks Japan; LS clocks 99.5% productivity; Tune in to DH Radio! 'Tesla to make EVs in K'taka'. Scorpio Daily Horoscope - February 14, 2021. Libra Daily Horoscope - February 14, 2021.
  • Shutterstock Leo. This week is plunging you into deep introspection, which may leave you turning over rocks and discovering some strange things. While you may feel unnerved by what you find, trust.
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  • Your overall relationship status this year will be on the rocks, but this month, some love and romance will creep into your love life. Horse March 2021. 2021 Horse monthly horoscope reveals that you will get the necessary help you need from your loved ones to get your footing. Horse April 2021.

Horoscope Rocks

Ground-level view of mesas in the Canyonlands National Park, Utah, known as the 'Islands in the Sky'

Horoscope, FRIDAY, FEB. If single, you meet someone this year who rocks your world and opens you up to the higher planes. It will be up to you if a commitment ensues.

Aerial view of mesas in Monument Valley, on the Colorado Plateau

A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by a more resistant layer or layers of harder rock, e.g. shales overlain by sandstones. The resistant layer acts as a caprock that forms the flat summit of a mesa. The caprock can consist of either sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone; dissected lava flows; or a deeply eroded duricrust. Unlike plateau, whose usage does not imply horizontal layers of bedrock, e.g. Tibetan Plateau, the term mesa applies exclusively to the landforms built of flat-lying strata. Instead, flat-topped plateaus are specifically known as tablelands.[1][2][3]

As noted by Bryan in 1922, mesas '..stand distinctly above the surrounding country, as a table stands above the floor upon which it rests'.[4] It is from this appearance the term mesa was adopted from a Spanish word meaning table.[2]

A mesa is similar to, but has a more extensive summit area than, a butte. However, there is no agreed size limit that separates mesas from either buttes or plateaus. For example, the flat-topped mountains, which are known as mesas, in the Cockburn Range of North-Western Australia have areas as much as 350 kilometres (220 mi). In contrast, flat topped hills, which are as small as 0.1 kilometres (0.062 mi) in area, in the Elbsandsteingebirge, Germany, are described as mesas.[1][2][3]

Cockburn Range, Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia

Less strictly, a very broad, flat-topped, usually isolated hill or mountain of moderate height bounded on at least one side by a steep cliff or slope and representing an erosion remnant also have been called mesas.[3]

In the English language geomorphic and geologic literature, other terms for mesa have also been used.[1] For example, in the Roraima region of Venezuela, the traditional name, tepui, from the local Pomón language, and the term table mountains have been used to describe local flat-topped mountains.[5][6] Similar landforms in Australia are known as tablehills, table-top hills,tent hills, or jump ups (jump-ups).[7][8][9] The German term Tafelberg has also been used in the English scientific literature in the past.[10]

Formation[edit]

Har Qatum, a mesa located on the southern edge of Makhtesh Ramon, Israel

Mesas form by weathering and erosion of horizontally layered rocks that have been uplifted by tectonic activity. Variations in the ability of different types of rock to resist weathering and erosion cause the weaker types of rocks to be eroded away, leaving the more resistant types of rocks topographically higher than their surroundings.[11] This process is called differential erosion. The most resistant rock types include sandstone, conglomerate, quartzite, basalt, chert, limestone, lava flows and sills.[11] Lava flows and sills, in particular, are very resistant to weathering and erosion, and often form the flat top, or caprock, of a mesa. The less resistant rock layers are mainly made up of shale, a softer rock that weathers and erodes more easily.[11]

The differences in strength of various rock layers is what gives mesas their distinctive shape. Less resistant rocks are eroded away on the surface into valleys, where they collect water drainage from the surrounding area, while the more resistant layers are left standing out.[11] A large area of very resistant rock, such as a sill may shield the layers below it from erosion while the softer rock surrounding it is eroded into valleys, thus forming a caprock.

Differences in rock type also reflect on the sides of a mesa, as instead of smooth slopes, the sides are broken into a staircase pattern called 'cliff-and-bench topography'.[11] The more resistant layers form the cliffs, or stair steps, while the less resistant layers form gentle slopes, or benches, between the cliffs. Cliffs retreat and are eventually cut off from the main cliff, or plateau, by basal sapping. When the cliff edge does not retreat uniformly, but instead is indented by headward eroding streams, a section can be cut off from the main cliff, forming a mesa.[11]

Basal sapping occurs as water flowing around the rock layers of the mesa erodes the underlying soft shale layers, either as surface runoff from the mesa top or from groundwater moving through permeable overlying layers, which leads to slumping and flowage of the shale.[12] As the underlying shale erodes away, it can no longer support the overlying cliff layers, which collapse and retreat. When the caprock has caved away to the point where only a little remains, it is known as a butte.

On Mars[edit]

A mesa in Noctis Labyrinthus on Mars, viewed by HiRISE

A transitional zone on Mars, known as the fretted terrain, lies between highly cratered highlands and less cratered lowlands. The younger lowland exhibits steep walled mesas and knobs. The mesa and knobs are separated by flat lying lowlands. They are thought to form from ice-facilitated mass wasting processes from ground or atmospheric sources. The mesas and knobs decrease in size with increasing distance from the highland escarpment. The relief of the mesas range from nearly 2 km to 100 m depending on the distance they are from the escarpment.[13]

See also[edit]

  • Archipelago – A group of islands
  • Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Dissected plateau – Plateau area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Mesa Verde National Park – U.S. national park in Colorado
  • Potrero (landform) – A long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain.
  • Table (landform) – Raised landforms that have a flat top
  • Table Mountain – A flat-topped mountain overlooking the city of Cape Town
  • Tepui – A table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Tundra – Biome where plant growth is hindered by cold temperatures
  • Tuya – A flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mesas.
Look up mesa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ abcDuszyński, F., Migoń, P. and Strzelecki, M.C., 2019. Escarpment retreat in sedimentary tablelands and cuesta landscapes–Landforms, mechanisms and patterns.Earth-Science Reviews,' no. 102890. doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102890
  2. ^ abcMigoń, P., 2004a. Mesa. In: Goudie, A.S. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Routledge, London, pp. 668. ISBN9780415272988
  3. ^ abcNeuendorf, Klaus K.E. Mehl, James P., Jr. Jackson, Julia A. (2011). Glossary of Geology (5th Edition). American Geosciences Institute. ISBN9781680151787
  4. ^Bryan, K. (1922). 'Erosion and Sedimentation in the Papago Country, Arizona'. US Geological Survey Bulletin (730): 19–90.
  5. ^Briceño, H.O. and Schubert, C., 1990. Geomorphology of the Gran Sabana, Guayana Shield, southeastern Venezuela.Geomorphology, 3(2), pp.125-141.
  6. ^Doerr, S.H., 1999. Karst-like landforms and hydrology in quartzites of the Venezuelan Guyana shield: Pseudokarst or' real' karst?.Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 43(1), pp.1-17.
  7. ^Jack, R.L., 1915. The Geology and prospects of the Region to the South of the Musgrave Ranges, and the Geology of the Western Portion of the Great Australian Artesian Basin.Geol. Survey South Australia Bulletin 5, pp. 72.
  8. ^Macquarie dictionary : Australia's national dictionary online, Macquarie Library, 2021, retrieved 11 March 2021
  9. ^'Land Zones of Queensland'. Queensland Government. 2012. pp. 62–63. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  10. ^King, L.C., 1942. South African Scenery. A Textbook of Geomorphology. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, London (340 pp.).
  11. ^ abcdefEasterbrook, Don J. (1999). Surface Processes and Landforms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN9780138609580.
  12. ^Choreley, Richard J.; Stanley A. Schumm; David E. Sugden (1985). Geomorphology. New York: Methuen.
  13. ^Baker, David M. Morphological Analyses of Mesas and Knobs in the Northwest Fretted Terrain of Mars; Constraints on the Presence and Distribution of Ice-Facilitated Mass-Wasting. Ed. Alexander K. Stewart and James W. Head. Vol. 40. Issue 2. pp. 72. United States: Geological Society of America (GSA) : Boulder, CO, United States, 2008.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mesa&oldid=1020064647'

Pisces season is romantic, dreamy, and mystical to its core. There's just something magical about it; something that reminds you to connect with your inner spirit and explore the furthest reaches of your imagination. However, your March 8, 2021 weekly horoscope shows that things are about to get even dreamier up in here. In fact, you might have trouble knowing what's real and what not.

On March 10, the sun will join forces with Neptune — planet of fantasy and illusion — which overlay the cosmos with a sparkling and idealistic sheen. This energy will encourage you to let your guard down and open your heart to the deepest understanding of kindness and love. It will ask you to let go of your negativity and your focus on the flaws while you lift yourself up and look at the bright side. It will also unleash a raw and unfiltered boost in artistic expression. However, this energy is just as fickle as it is serene and strange. You might even feel like you're walking through water or passing through a dream. This aspect also has the tendency to mask the ugly parts of your reality and only reveal the beautiful ones, making it harder to see things totally clearly.

The new moon in Pisces also takes place on March 13, presenting a new beginning that's based on spiritual reflection, rejuvenation, and renewal. Pisces is the zodiac sign of sacrifice, selflessness, and universal love. Let this new moon help you set your ego aside whenever you feel like your ego is standing in the way of a purer connection to the present moment. Pisces is not about pride, nor is it about being the 'best' or winning the game. It's about accepting yourself as you are and loving yourself as you are. Pisces wants to remind you that you are infinite.

Horoscope rocks

Your relationships will also receive a boost in romance, lust, and love by March 13. Venus will conjoin with Neptune, infusing stagnant relationships with a magical mindset and helping you forgive those who have hurt you. However, implementing boundaries is essential, as you may have the tendency to give more than you have. You may have more trouble seeing people as they are and would rather see them the way you want to see them, so don't replace too many facts with beautiful ideas.

Aries

This week is all about letting go, setting aside your ego, and freeing yourself from all the heaviness you've been carrying. However, this doesn't all happen at once, because healing is a process and it's a messy one at that. It all begins with actually giving yourself the chance to feel your feelings. Repressing them any further will only deepen their impact on you. Let them pass through you like a river.

Taurus

Dreams go beyond money, success, and recognition. A dream for a better future involves everyone, but it all begins with you. Look inside yourself and rediscover the mark you want to leave behind in this life. What do you want to create for the next generation? True recognition goes way beyond your wins; it's about leaving the world a better place than it was before you got there.

Gemini

Horoscope Cancer Girls Rocks

Let go of your need to be logical or reasonable about your career goals. Concentrating too much on the rules and limitations leaves little room for creativity. This week, give yourself the chance to imagine yourself achieving the career goal you've always wanted to achieve — the one that seems impossible; the one that may have made your contemporaries doubt your chances. Dream big and watch what happens.

Rocks

Cancer

Astrology Rocks And Stones

How you see the world determines the world you live in. Although you and someone else might live in the same world, the way your imaginations and perspectives function could create two different worlds entirely. Reconsider the way your thoughts, feelings, and beliefs shape your reality. So many things may seem out of your control, yet your interpretation of things is most certainly in your domain.

Leo

This week is plunging you into deep introspection, which may leave you turning over rocks and discovering some strange things. While you may feel unnerved by what you find, trust that it's probably nowhere near as bad as you think. And even still, you're strong enough to overcome the challenges these revelations might pose. Be kind to yourself as you embrace the slow, steady change that is transformation.

Virgo

This week is about opening your heart to empathy, love, and understanding. It's about infusing your relationships with the kindness and compassion you and your loved ones deserve. It's also about understanding your enemies on a deeper level, realizing that they, too, have struggles. It's not necessarily about forgiving them and letting them back into your life, but it is about forgiving and setting yourself free from the grudge you may be holding.

Libra

This week, you might feel distracted from your routine and detached from your tasks at hand. Putting pressure on yourself to abide by rules and regulations all the time goes against your very nature. You're more than just a working machine; you're also a human being with an old soul. Perhaps stepping away from your need to measure yourself as 'productive' is what you really need right now.

Horoscope Rocks

Scorpio

Horoscope Rocks

You may be falling in love this week. Whether you're falling in love with a crush or a creative idea, the universe may seem a lot more enchanting than usual. Enjoy every minute of it and don't let fear inhibit your self-expression. However, there is a point where you might find yourself ignoring reality, especially when it comes to a relationship. Don't let the way you imagine someone obscure the way someone truly is.

Sagittarius

What you really need this week is to feel nurtured. What makes you feel loved? What makes you feel like you belong? What makes you feel like you're right at home? In a literal sense, 'home' may not exactly be ideal, and yet the energy of this week is encouraging you to enrich your life with the coziness that's to your liking. Leave behind your stress over everything else and focus on the private part of your world.

Capricorn

There's a strong possibility you may be misinterpreting something someone said this week. There's also the possibility that you're not saying exactly what you mean. It may even feel like you're communicating through a hazy cloud of smoke that warps every word that's exchanged. However, the words both of you will remember are the kind and compassionate ones. Remember those.

Aquarius

Be careful of overspending or misinterpreting your finances at the moment. Your desire for material luxuries may overshadow what's actually a smart way for you to spend at the moment. However, your connection with your five senses is strengthening in a beautiful way. Whenever you feel unfocused or disconnected, use touch, sound, sight, taste, and smell to reorient yourself and remind you where you are.

Pisces

Astrological Rocks

Your instinct to be kind and compassionate to others may seem obvious to everyone. You may find yourself in a position where you're lending someone a shoulder to cry on or helping someone along on their path to healing. Future husband name by astrology. However, don't forget to stand up for yourself when someone takes advantage of that kindness. While you extend love to others, remember to extend that love to yourself as well.